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Klaus Winter

Brian Allan: Ecology of Infectious Diseases
Alison Bell: Behavioral Ecology
May R. Berenbaum: Chemical Ecology
Jeffrey Brawn: Avian Ecology
Carla Cáceres: Aquatic Evolutionary Ecology
Zac Cheviron: Physiology and Evolution
Jim Dalling: Tropical Forest Ecology
Evan Delucia: Plant Ecology & Global Change
Rebecca Fuller: Fish Evolutionary Genetics
Katy Heath: Genomics of Mutualisms
Feng Sheng Hu: Ecosystem Ecology
Matthew Hudson: Bioinformatics & Genomics
Kevin Johnson: Avian & Insect Systematics
Angela Kent: Microbial Ecology
Andrew Leakey: Plants & Global Change
Jian Ma: Comparative Genomics
Ripan Malhi: Molecular Anthropology
Andrew Miller: Fungal Biodiversity
Ken Paige: Evolutionary Ecology
Surangi Punyasena: Paleobotany
Hugh Robertson: Insect Genomics
Gene Robinson: Bee Behavior & Genomics
Al Roca: Conservation Genetics
Sandra Rodriguez-Zas: Bioinformatics
Karen Sears: Evolutionary Development
Saurabh Sinha: Computational Genomics
Andrew Suarez: Ant Ecology & Evolution
Rachel J. Whitaker: Microbial Genomics
Last Name

STRI Mentor

Klaus Winter

Research Interests

Senior Staff Scientist, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, P.O. Box 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama, phone +507 212 8131,

Professional Preparation and Awards

  • 1972 - University Darmstadt, Germany - Staatsexamen, Biology, Chemistry
  • 1975 - University Darmstadt, Germany - . rer. nat, Botany, summa cum laude
  • 1976-1977 - University Darmstadt, Germany - Postdoctoral Research Scientist
  • 1978-1979 - ANU, Canberra, Australia - Postdoctoral Fellow
  • 1980 - University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA - Postdoctoral Research Associate
  • 1981-1983 - University Würzburg, Germany - Habilitation Fellow
  • 1981 - German Federal Ministry of Education and Science - Heinz-Maier-Leibnitz Prize
  • 1983 - University Würzburg, Germany - Dr. rer. nat. habil.
  • 1983-1985 - University Würzburg, Germany - Heisenberg Fellow
  • 2002 - - Highly cited researcher


  • 1985 - University Würzburg, Germany - Professor of Botany (C3)
  • 1991 - Smithsonian Trop. Res. Inst. - Staff Scientist
  • 1998 - Smithsonian Trop. Res. Inst. - Senior Staff Scientist

Current research

The Winter lab studies the biochemical-physiological foundations of how tropical plants interact with the environment and respond to environmental stress. Topics of current research include: (i) Responses of tropical plant species to pre-industrial, current-ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Experiments compare responses of legumes and non-legumes, lianas and trees, angiosperms and gymnosperms, and investigate interactions between [CO2] and soil nutrient status, soil water status and temperature. (ii) Adaptation and acclimation of tropical plants to high temperatures. (iii) Functional significance and evolutionary origins of CAM photosynthesis in tropical species of Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae and Clusiaceae.

Representative and Recent Publications

  • Cernusak LA, Winter K, Martinez C, Correa E, Aranda J, Garcia M, Jaramillo C, Turner BL (2011) Responses of legume versus nonlegume tropical tree seedlings to elevated CO2 concentration. Plant Physiology 157: 372-385
  • Cernusak LA, Winter K, Turner BL (2011) Transpiration modulates phosphorus acquisition in tropical tree seedlings. Tree Physiology 31: 878-885
  • West-Eberhard MJ, Smith JAC, Winter K (2011) Photosynthesis, reorganized. Science 332: 311-312
  • Winter K, Garcia M, Holtum JAM (2011) Drought-stress-induced up-regulation of CAM in seedlings of a tropical cactus, Opuntia elatior, operating predominantly in the C3 mode. Journal of Experimental Botany 62: 4037-4042
  • Winter K, Holtum JAM (2011) Induction and reversal of crassulacean acid metabolism in Calandrinia polyandra: effects of soil moisture and nutrients. Functional Plant Biology 38: 576-582
  • Cernusak LA, Winter K, Turner BL (2010) Leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of tropical trees: experimental assessment of physiological and environmental controls. New Phytologist 185: 770-779
  • Garrish V, Cernusak LA, Winter K, Turner BL (2010) Nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of plant biomass versus soil solution in a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida. Journal of Experimental Botany 61: 3735-3748
  • Holtum JAM, Winter K (2010) Elevated [CO2] and forest vegetation: more a water issue than a carbon issue? Functional Plant Biology 37: 694-702
  • Krause GH, Winter K, Krause B, Jahns P, Garcia M, Aranda J, Virgo A (2010) High- temperature tolerance of a tropical tree, Ficus insipida: methodological reassessment and climate change considerations. Functional Plant Biology 37: 890-900
  • Silvera K, Santiago LS, Cushman JC, Winter K (2010) The incidence of crassulacean acid metabolism in Orchidaceae derived from carbon isotope ratios: a checklist of the flora of Panama and Costa Rica. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 194-222

Synergistic Activities

  • Organizer of "CAM2010", an International Workshop on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (Evolution, Metabolic Control, Ecophysiology, Climate Change, Biofuels). Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, March 22-24, 2010.
  • Organizer of an International Symposium on "Responses of Tropical Vegetation to Elevated [CO2]: An Experimental Approach. What are the key questions and how best to address them experimentally?" Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, March 31-April 1, 2011.
  • Organizer of forthcoming International Symposium on "Tropical Vegetation and Rising Temperatures: Functional Basis of Ecological Response." Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, May 31- June 1, 2012.
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